New Zealand Rhythm Centre - Rhythm and Healing - Research on composite effects of group drumming, page 7
Rhythm Centre :: Rhythm and Healing :: Research and Studies
"Composite effects of group drumming music therapy on modulation of neuroendocrine-immune parameters in normal subjects." - Page 7


Figure 2
well-being in healthy adults in an emotional self-management program,/42 with DHEA enhancement correlating with positive affective states and diminished cortisol correlating with stress. Hechter et al/34 have proposed that diminished DHEA-to-cortisol ratios increase the risk of initiation and progression of a wide range of diseases. Van den Berghe et al/43 found that suppression of DHEA-to-cortisol ratios in critically ill patients may aggravate or maintain the anergic state of prolonged severe illness.
      The finding of elevated DHEA-to-cortisol ratios in experimental subjects in the present study suggests a shift in adrenal steroids in an immunoenhancing direction. This shift could potentially enhance cell-mediated (TH1) immune reactivity and is consistent with enhanced LAK cell activity observed at the end of the drumming session in the experimental group. It is unlikely that the DHEA-to-cortisol ratio was elevated solely because of the exercise component of the drumming. Milani and coEeagues/44 showed that exercise training alone has no significant impact on DHEA sulfate; however, behavioral therapy in combination with exercise training did elevate DHEA sulfate. In addition, qigong training in humans did not elevate DHEA sulfate or change cortisol levels./45 Furthermore, data from preliminary studies failed to demonstrate elevations of DHEA-to-cortisol ratios associated with other drumming interventions, one of which included higher levels of exercise than ultimately used in the treatment group.

      Based on the failure of some of the researchers' preliminary drumming trials to modulate neuroimmune parameters, the unique combination of components in the composite drumming sessions, including the music therapist's approach, exercise, music, and guided imagery, may have exerted a collective effect on immune modulation and adrenal steroids to elevate the DHEA-to-cortisol ratio.
      Van der Berghe et al/43 have shown that DHEA and cortisol secretions are under separate central nervous system regulatory control, thereby providing ample opportunity for a complex activity such as drumming to exert emotional and cognitive influences on this central regulatory circuitry. In one preliminary study group, subjects listened to drum music generated by an experimental group. Other groups drummed without introductory warm-up activities or drumming guided imagery according to the present protocol. Another performed intense drumming without these associated activities. No significant results in any measures other than cortisol reduction were found from subjects who participated in these drumming groups. According to the present protocol, then, drumming appears to be a complex composite activity with key individual components that, in unique combination, appear to be responsible for the measured neuroendocrine and neuroimmunological changes.
      NK cells are large granular lymphocytes, major components of the innate immune system, with mixed lymphocyte/mono-cyte/granulocyte surface markers. MORE..

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